General concepts, today’s computing systems and computer technology. Data representation methods – signed and unsigned integer numbers, floating point numbers, characters. Signed integer and floating point arithmetic. Computer performance and evaluation. Instruction set architectures RISC (MIPS), CISC (Intel x86) – instruction format, instruction set, addressing modes with particular emphasis on indexed method, as implemented in lists and tables – pseudo-instructions. Assembly and machine language, programming at symbolic language level, fetch – execution of instructions, stack organization and subroutines, assembler, linker, debugger. One cycle processor – datapath design.